What is Morphine?
A) Morphine is a narcotic analgesic. Morphine was first isolated from opium in
1805 by a German pharmacist, Wilhelm Sertürner. Sertürner described
it as the Principium Somniferum. He named it morphium - after Morpheus, the Greek
god of dreams. Today morphine is isolated from opium in substantially larger quantities
- over 1000 tons per year - although most commercial opium is converted into codeine
by methylation. On the illicit market, opium gum is filtered into morphine base
and then synthesized into heroin.
How is Morphine used?
Morphine can be taken orally in tablet form, and can also injected subcutaneously,
intramuscularly, or intravenously; the last is the route preferred by those who
are dependent on morphine.
What are the side effects of Morphine?
movement of the eyeball
vision / double vision
or irritable mood
sense of well-being
due to fluid retention||dry
or pins and needles||facial
What are the symptoms of Overdose?
in the lungs
or dilated pupils
What is Morphine addiction?
Morphine is highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses
to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence develop
quickly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and
sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and
babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.
drugs activate the brains reward systems. The promise of reward is very
intense, causing the individual to crave the drug and to focus his or her activities
around taking the drug. The ability of addictive drugs to strongly activate brain
reward mechanisms and their ability to chemically alter the normal functioning
of these systems can produce an addiction. Drugs also reduce a persons level
of consciousness, harming the ability to think or be fully aware of present surroundings.
What are possible drug interactions when using Morphine?
analgesics such as Talwin, Nubain, Stadol, and Buprenex
that control vomiting, such as Compazine and Tigan
classified as MAO inhibitors, such as the antidepressants Nardil and Parnate
tranquilizers such as Thorazine and Haldol
relaxants such as Flexeril and Valium
such as Dalmane and Halcion
such as Librium and Xanax
pills such as Diuril and Lasix
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